Kaymak – Каймак

Kaymak (Cyrillic: Кајмак or Vrhnja/Врхњe), kaymak, kajmak, kaimak, keimach, qeymağ, geymar, or gaimar is a Turkish creamy dairy product, similar to clotted cream. It is made from the milk of water buffalos or of cows.

The traditional method of making kaymak is to boil the milk slowly, then simmer it for two hours over a very low heat. After the heat source is shut off, the cream is skimmed and left to chill (and mildly ferment) for several hours or days. Kaymak has a high percentage of milk fat, typically about 60%. It has a thick, creamy consistency (not entirely compact due to milk protein fibers) and a rich taste.

Etymology

The word kaymak has Central Asian origins, possibly formed from the verb kayl-mak, which means melt and molding of metal in Mongolian.[1] The first written records of the word kaymak is in the well-known book of Mahmud al-Kashgari, Kutadgu Bilig.[1] The word remains as kaylgmak in Mongolian, and with small variations in Turkic languages as qaymaq in Azerbaijani,[2]qaymoq in Uzbek,[3] каймак in Kyrgyz,[4]kaymak in Turkmen.[1] However in these languages noun form of the word is not reserved for the produced end product, but it refers to the clot of any milk formed after boiling.BalkansShops in Turkey have been devoted to kaymak production and consumption for centuries, as evidenced by the origins of the word are actually Turkish. Kaymak is mainly consumed today for breakfast along with the traditional Turkish breakfast. One of the better types of kaymak is still to be found in the Afyonkarahisar region where the water buffalo are fed from the residue of poppy seeds pressed for oil. Kaymak can also describe the creamy foam in the traditional “black” Turkish coffee. Kaymak is traditionally eaten with pastries, preserves or honey or as a filling in pancakes.Kajmak is almost always produced in the traditional way, in private households, and can be bought only in open markets rather than in stores or supermarkets; commercial production is low and not of as good quality.[5] The best varieties come from mountain cattle farms. Kajmak can also be matured in dried animal skin sacks, and this variation is called skorup.It is usually enjoyed as an appetizer, but also as a condiment. The simplest recipe is lepinja sa kajmakom (pitabread filled with kaymak) consumed for breakfast or as fast food. Bosnians, Serbs, and Macedonians consider it a national meal. Other traditional dishes with kajmak include pljeskavica sa kajmakom (the Balkan version of a hamburger patty topped with melted kaymak), as well as ribić u kajmaku (beef leg meat, simmered with kaymak). It is a common accompaniment to barbecued meat.the Middle EastKaymak or qymaq in Afghanistan is used as an accompaniment to flatbread, naan, or for the tea drinking on special occasions, qymak chai which is green tea with baking soda, milk and kajmak as a topping. In Iran, the words qhaymaqh and Sarshir are both used to name this type of cream. In Iraq, it is called Gaimar or Qaimar and is sometimes served for breakfast with fresh bread, honey or jam and hot tea. Two sources to buy Gaimar in Iraq, factory produced or local vendors (farmers) who are commonly named Arab, Arbans or Maadaan and thus its referred to as Gaimar Arab or Gaimar Maadan as of farmers Gaimar.See also

Каймак (от тюрк. ḳajmaḳ) — кисломолочный продукт, нечто среднее между сметаной, сладким творогом и сливочным маслом.

Poljorad domaci kajmak.jpg

История и приготовлениеЕсть мнение, что каймак придумали на Балканах, так как там существует своя технология его приготовления. С молока в течение довольно долгого времени снимают сливки и перекладывают их слоями в глиняную тарелку, после чего несколько дней его держат в тепле. В результате образуется густой каймак темно-кремового, чуть желтоватого цвета. В Черногории каймак дополнительно подсаливают.Похожие кисломолочные продукты есть в Татарии, Башкирии, на Кавказе и Средней Азии, и большинство исследователей считают каймак национальным продуктом среднеазиатских республик. Так, каймак пользуется большой популярностью у таджиков. Для его приготовления цельное свежее молоко с вечера кипятят 1-2 минуты, ставят на холод, закрывают крышкой и через сутки снимают с поверхности молока сливки, которые подают к столу с горячими лепешками.Так же каймак готовят и в Азербайджане.В киргизской кухне каймак считается одним из первых продуктов, полученных человеком из цельного молока.В Татарии и Башкирии каймаком ныне называют обыкновенную сметану, снятую вручную с простокваши через 2-3 дня или отогнанную сепаратором.Каймак готовят как из парного молока, так и из кипяченого. Изобретение сепаратора облегчило и ускорило процесс приготовления каймака.Состав и применениеКаймак богат следующими витаминами и минералами: витамином А — 5,6 %, витамином B2 — 11,1 %, витамином B3 — 8 %, витамином B12 — 13,3 %, витамином H — 6,4 %, кальцием — 12 %, калием — 5,8 %, фосфором — 11,3 %, йодом — 6 %, молибденом — 7,1 %, кобальтом — 8 %.Употребляют каймак с хлебом, подают к чаю или используют для приготовления различных блюд, например гурьевской каши, о которой упоминается ещё в старорусских кулинарных книгах.СвойстваНесмотря на то, что жирность каймака очень высокая (около 40 %), он является весьма полезным продуктом. Помимо вкусовых особенностей, каймак обладает также и особой микрофлорой, создающейся в нём в результате молочнокислого брожения, что превращает его в полезный продукт, особенно для тех, кто трудно переносит обычные жиры.Полезен каймак в период быстрого роста, при беременности и лактации.КалорийностьЭнергетическая ценность 100 г каймака очень высокая и составляет 750 ккал.Clotted creamFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, searchClotted cream (sometimes called clouted cream or Devonshire cream) is a thick cream made by indirectly heating full-cream cow’s milk using steam or a water bath and then leaving it in shallow pans to cool slowly. During this time, the cream content rises to the surface and forms ‘clots’ or ‘clouts’.[1] It forms an essential part of a cream tea.Although its origin is uncertain, the cream’s production is commonly associated with dairy farms in South West England and in particular the counties of Cornwall and Devon. The current largest commercial producer in the UK is Rodda’s in Redruth, Cornwall, which can produce up to 25 tons (25,000 kg; 55,000 lb) of clotted cream a day.[2] In 1998 the term Cornish clotted cream became a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) by European Union directive, as long as the milk is produced in Cornwall and the minimum fat content is 55%.Description

“Its orient tinge, like spring-time morn,
Or baby-buttercups newly-born;
Its balmy perfume, delicate pulp,
One longs to swallow it all at a gulp,
Sure man had ne’er such gifts or theme
As your melt-in-mouthy Devonshire cream.”

An eulogy on a can of cream sent from a lady in Exeter. (extract)
—William Barry Peacock, Manchester, 1853[3]

Clotted cream has been described as having a “nutty, cooked milk” flavour,[4] and a “rich sweet flavour” with a texture that is grainy, sometimes with oily globules on the crusted surface.[5][6] It is a thick cream, with a very high fat content (a minimum of 55%, but an average of 64%); in the United States it would be classified as butter.[7] Despite its popularity, virtually none is exported due to it having a very short shelf life.[7]Clotted cream is often considered to be bad for health due its high saturated fat content.[8][9] For comparison, single cream has a lower fat content of 18%.[10] According to the United Kingdom’s Food Standards Agency, a 100-gram (3.5 oz) tub of clotted cream provides 586 kilocalories (2,450 kJ), roughly equivalent to a 200-gram (7.1 oz) cheeseburger.[11]History

An advertisement from 1920

Originally made by farmers to reduce the amount of waste from their milk, clotted cream has become so deep-rooted in the culture of South West England that it is now a tourist attraction.[12] While there is no doubt of its strong association with Cornwall and Devon, it is not clear where it first originated. It is similar to kaymak (or kajmak), a Near Eastern delicacy that is made throughout the Middle East, Southeast Europe, Iran, Afghanistan, India and Turkey. According to the Oxford Companion to Food, it may have been introduced to Cornwall by Phoenician traders in search of tin.[dubiousdiscuss][13] However, ancient food experts,[14] noting Strabo‘s commentaries on Britain (“They live off their herds … As they have mines of tin and lead, they give these metals and hides from their cattle to the sea traders … instead of olive oil they use butter.”), have proposed that the early Britons would probably have clotted cream to preserve its freshness.More recently, regional archaeologists [14][15] have associated the stone fogous (dial. ‘fuggy-hole’), or souterrains, found across Atlantic Britain, France and Ireland as a possible form of ‘cold store’ for dairy production of milk, cream and cheese in particular. Similar functions are ascribed the linney (dial. ‘lean-to’) stone-built form, often used as a dairy in later medieval longhouses in the same regions.[16]It has long been disputed whether clotted cream originated in Devon or Cornwall,[3] and which county makes it the best.[17] There is evidence that the monks of Tavistock Abbey were making clotted cream in the early 1300s.[18] After their abbey had been ransacked by Vikings in 997 AD, the monks rebuilt it with the help of Ordulf, Earl of Devon. Local workers were drafted in to help with the repairs, and the monks rewarded them with bread, clotted cream and strawberry preserves.[19] The 1658 cookery bookThe Compleat Cook had a recipe for “clouted cream”.[20]

A tin that was used in the 1970s to send clotted cream through the post from Devon

In the 19th century it was regarded as better nourishment than “raw” cream because that cream was liable to go sour and be difficult to digest, causing illness.[21] An article from 1853 calculates that creating clotted cream will produce 25% more cream than regular methods.[22] In Devon, it was so common that in the mid-1800s it was used in the formative processes of butter, instead of churning cream or milk. The butter made in this way had a longer lifespan and was free from any negative flavours added by the churning.[23]It has long been the practice for local residents in South West England, or those on holiday to send small tins or tubs of clotted cream by post to friends and relations in other parts of the British Isles.[6] Food regulations for perishable goods prohibit it being sent abroad.[24]MalaiFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, searchFor other uses, see Malai (disambiguation).Malai is a Indian term for clotted cream or Devonshire cream. It is made by heating non-homogenized whole milk to about 80°C (180°F) for about one hour and then allowing to cool. A thick yellowish layer of fat and coagulated proteins forms on the surface, which is skimmed off.[1] The process is usually repeated to remove most of the fat. Malai has about 55% butterfat. Buffalo milk is thought to produce better malai because of its high fat content.Malai is used in such recipes as the famous Ras malai, Malai Kofta dumplings, and the sweet Malai Kulfi.

ClottedCream.JPG
A tub of clotted cream, showing top crust.

Alternative name(s)Clouted cream, Devonshire cream

Ряженка

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Ряженка
(изображение создано путём объединения нескольких фотографий, и может не содержать всех деталей)

Ря́женкакисломолочный напиток из украинской кухни,[1][2] получаемый из коровьего топлёного молока молочнокислым брожением. Заквашивание производится термофильными молочнокислыми стрептококками и чистыми культурами болгарской палочки, сквашивается в течение 3—6 часов. Имеет желтовато-буроватый оттенок и традиционный кисломолочный вкус. Фактически является одной из разновидностей йогурта без вкусовых добавок.

Часто применяется как основа для напитка «ласси».

Схожими продуктами являются варенец и тюркский катык.

Варенец

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Варенец

Варенец — кисломолочный напиток, получаемый из коровьего топлёного молока совместным молочнокислым и спиртовым брожением. Топлёное молоко приготавливается медленным вытапливанием (выпариванием) молока так, чтобы оно убавилось минимум на треть своего объема и приобрело красноватый оттенок. Затем топленое молоко заправляется (заквашивается) сметаной (из расчета 200 г на литр) и выдерживается в закрытом виде 3—4 часа в теплом помещении.

На Урале и в Сибири варенцом называли топленое молоко, заправленное не сметаной, а сливками. Такой варенец подавался к чаю.

Stewler

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Stewler
Варенец.jpg
Stewler
Origin
Place of origin Russia
Details
Main ingredient(s) Milk

Stewler or Simmeler or Varenets (Russian: варенец, Ukrainian: варенець) is a variety of yogurt that is popular in Russia and Ukraine. It is made by adding to boiled milk sour cream.[1]

Baked milk

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  (Redirected from Ryazhenka)
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Baked milk
Baked milk..jpg
Baked milk
Origin
Place of origin Russia
Details
Main ingredient(s) Milk

Baked milk (Russian: топлёное молоко, Ukrainian: пряжене молоко, Belarusian: адтопленае малако) is a variety of boiled milk that has been particularly popular in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus.[1][2][3] It is made by simmering milk on low heat for eight hours or longer.

In rural areas baked milk has been produced by leaving a jug of boiled milk in an oven for a day or for a night until it is coated with a brown crust. Prolonged exposure to heat causes reactions between the milk’s amino acids and sugars, resulting in the formation of melanoidin compounds that give it a creamy color and caramel flavor. A great deal of moisture evaporates, resulting in a change of consistency. The stove in a traditional Russian loghouse (izba) sustains “varying cooking temperatures based on the placement of the food inside the oven”.[4]

Today, baked milk is produced on an industrial scale, as is soured or fermented baked milk, traditionally known as ryazhenka (Russian: ряженка). Like scalded milk, it is free of bacteria and enzymes and can be stored safely at room temperature for up to forty hours. Home-made baked milk is used for preparing a range of cakes, pies, and cookies.

Caramelized sweetened condensed milk is a similar preparation used in home-made pastries, often prepared by prolonged heating of unopened cans of condensed milk. Caution should be taken, as heating closed cans can result in an explosion.

See also

Dulce de leche

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Dulce de Leche (Doce de Leite)
DulceDeLeche.jpg
A jar of dulce de leche
Origin
Alternative name(s) Manjar, manjar blanco
Place of origin Argentina, Uruguay
Region or state Río de la Plata, South America
Creator(s) Unclear
Details
Type Confectionery
Main ingredient(s) Milk, sugar
Variations Cajeta
Approximate calories
per serving
320 kcal

Dulce de leche (pronounced: [ˈdulse ðe ˈletʃe]; Portuguese: doce de leite [ˈdosi dʒi ˈlejtʃi]) is a confection prepared by slowly heating sweetened milk to create a product that derives its taste from caramelised sugar. Literally translated, it means “candy of milk” or “candy [made] of milk”, “milk candy”, or “milk jam” in the same way that dulce de frutilla is strawberry jam. It is popular in South America, notably in Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil and Paraguay. The same goes for Chile and Ecuador where it is known as manjar (Spanish for delicacy). In Peru, Colombia and Venezuela, it is referred to as manjar blanco or arequipe, depending on regional variations. In Brazil, it is known by its Portuguese name doce de leite.

The dulce de leche of El Salvador has a soft, crumbly texture, with an almost crystallized form. A Mexican version called cajeta is made from goat’s milk. In the Dominican Republic it is made with equal parts milk and sugar with cinnamon, and the texture is more like fudge. In Puerto Rico dulce de leche is sometimes made with unsweetened coconut milk.

A French version, known as confiture de lait, is very similar to the spreadable forms of dulce de leche. A Norwegian version, Hamar-pålegg (“Hamar spread”), better known as HaPå, is a commercial variant that is thicker and less sweet.

A similar recipe is used to prepare basundi in India, which resembles a less condensed dulce de leche, flavoured with cardamom and eaten as a dessert. The Philippines also has dulce de leche, where it is usually paired with cakes or breakfast rolls. As in other places, it has also found its way into other desserts such as cakes and ice cream.

This is also known in Russia as boiled concentrated milk (the Russian equivalent of sweetened concentrated milk).

In 1997, the ice cream company Häagen-Dazs introduced a dulce de leche-flavoured ice cream. In the same year,[4] Starbucks began offering dulce de leche-flavoured coffee products.[5]

Contents

Варёное сгущённое молоко

Варёное сгущённое молоко — густой коричнево-жёлтый продукт со вкусом карамели — получают путём термообработки сгущённого молока. По составу и вкусу напоминает конфеты «молочный ирис».

В советское время карамелизированное (варёное) сгущённое молоко с сахаром промышленно не выпускали, а готовили в домашних условиях путём дополнительной варки обычной сгущёнки (прямо в банке на водяной бане в течение нескольких (обычно 2—3) часов. (При выкипании воды банки могут взрываться.)

В послеперестроечное время варёное сгущённое молоко стали производить и промышленным способом[2].

 



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